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GDN FUNDED PAPERS
Awards and Medals Competition - Access to finance, growth and poverty: How close are the links in the case of Bolivia?
Project :
Author : Maria Sucre Reyes
Date : 2010
Description : The main goal of the paper is to analyze the relationships finance–economic growth and finance–poverty for the case of Bolivia, focusing on the dimension of access. Considering the economic and social characteristics of Bolivia, we attempted to approach empirically both relationships for the case of this country. Our empirical results are based on cross section data analysis. This analysis was executed covering data of indicators of access to finance, economic growth, poverty and other control variables at the level of municipalities in Bolivia (around 300). The main findings suggest that access to finance is a main factor spurring economic growth and poverty reduction in Bolivia. Additionally, in our results the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) is highlighted, particularly the role of semiformal institutions such as NGOs.
Innovative sources of development finance: The role of land in financing India’s large cities and comparisons with China
Project :
Author : Kala Seetharam Sridhar, A. Venugopala Reddy
Date : 2010
Description : Given the recent financial crisis has hit many donor countries and is threatening their pre-crisis commitment to allocate more aid in order to accelerate progress with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in this paper, we have made an attempt to assess the potential of land as a municipal financing tool in four Indian cities and compare this with the available evidence from China, to enable better public service delivery and attainment of the MDGs. We study the institutional arrangements for land use between the urban development authorities and municipal corporations in India‘s cities and find that the responsibilities are fragmented and unclear. The urban development authorities, being state government entities, are much better endowed with resources than municipal corporations. We find in the case of Indian cities that if revenues from land leasing and sales by the urban development authorities were to accrue to municipal corporations, there is a huge range in the addition to municipality revenues that could result. We find that there could be an increase in municipality‘s total revenues to the extent of 33 percent, own source revenues to the extent of 90 percent, and property tax revenues to the extent of nearly 930 percent, should revenues from land leasing and sales by the urban development authorities accrue to municipal corporations. There is also enough local control over resources to be spent. In China, cities have more autonomy than their Indian counterparts in terms of urban infrastructure which is no longer treated as a ‗charity‘ and payment is required for the use of scarce land resources and infrastructure access. Hence major institutional changes have to be brought about in India‘s cities and finances to enable attainment of the MDGs.
Medals for Research on Development 2010 -The Impact of Microfinance on Rural Poor Households’ Income and Vulnerability to Poverty: Case Study of Makueni District, Kenya
Project :
Author : Joy Kiiru
Date : 2010
Description : "Microfinance has become very important in global poverty reduction debates. The popular assumption is that enabling poor households access to credit helps households begin micro entrepreneurship which would enable them improve their incomes and eventually escape poverty. Evidence from research so far has been scanty, and many results have been highly contested. The main objective of the thesis was to analyze the impact of microfinance on household income as well as measure household vulnerability to poverty after access to microfinance. The study is an experimental case of Makueni district where participants in microfinance programmes and non participant households were studied over time; thus yielding a rich pooled data for analysis. On integrating time dynamics in the analysis, the results indicate a positive and significant impact of microfinance on household income. To this end the thesis argues that there is a role of microfinance on the improvement of household incomes. The thesis also re asserts that providing affordable financial services to the rural population still remains to be an important component of development strategy. On the other hand the thesis emphasizes that there is need to come up with innovative microfinance institutions that are supportive of their own role in assets accumulation and wealth creation for their clients. This will involve innovative targeting of potential clients, as well as streamlined microfinance regulations to protect their clients. In particular the study cautions that the ability of households to begin informal sole micro entrepreneurships should not be assumed to be adequate for the improvement of household income. There is need to create a policy framework to spur growth not only in the micro enterprises but also in the overall rural economy that would lead to the creation of employment opportunities and an increment in the agricultural output. This is quite a big task to accomplish and may require more than one particular policy intervention. In essence this calls for both private (microfinance) and public partnerships to create the environment where such poverty reduction objectives could be realized."
Measuring and Optimising Migration’s Economic and Social Impacts in Vietnam
Project :
Author : Dang Nguyen Anh; Tran Thi Bich; Nguyen Ngoc Quynh; Dao The Son
Date : April 2010
Description : Although migration to and from Vietnam has increased considerably in recent years and now attracts a great deal of attention from both policymakers and researchers, there is still a lack of comprehensive quantitative information on international migration and its impacts on development. Researchers have tended to focus on internal migration and its consequences, and very few policies take into account the profound impact of international migration. This research is therefore the first empirical study to provide a comprehensive investigation of the social and economic impacts of international migration to and from Vietnam and the current policies related to these issues. The report’s analysis focuses particularly on the effects of migration on income distribution and living standards, savings and investment, labour market participation, education, health, gender roles and other social factors. The report has employed a wide range of methodological tools, including analysis of existing literature and data sources, a national household survey and in-depth stakeholder interviews. The household survey is the first nation-wide survey on international migration in Vietnam, which allows for detailed investigation of the developmental impacts of migration and generates valuable new evidence.
Development on the Move: Measuring and Optimising the Economic and Social Impacts of Migration in the Republic of Macedonia
Project :
Author : Mr. Zoran Nikolovski; Mr. Vanco Uzunov; Ms. Maja Micevska Scharf; Ms. Suncica Sazdovska
Date : April 2010
Description : This report on migration in the Republic of Macedonia forms part of ‘Development on the Move: Measuring and Optimising Migration’s Economic and Social Impacts’: a multi-year, innovative and policy-focused research project jointly run by the Global Development Network (GDN) and the Institute for Public Policy Research (ippr) in London. Development on the Move is a ground-breaking global project that has gathered new qualitative and quantitative data about the impacts of migration on development. By drawing on comparable evidence from a number of countries around the world, the project has sought to comprehensively assess how migration affects development and to improve understanding of how policy can maximize migration’s development benefits and minimise its costs. Although Macedonia has a long history of migration, relatively little is known about the number of migrants who move, their experiences abroad, and the impact of their absence on te families and communities they leave behind. It is also unclear how return migration affects development in Macedonia. The aim of this report is therefore to fill some of these gaps in the evidence base. Our findings incorporate a review of the most relevant existing literature on this subject, but are drawn primarily from new primary research carried out in 2008 and 2009, including interviews with key stakeholders and data derived from a new and nationally representative household survey.
Development on the Move: Measuring and Optimising Migration’s Economic and Social Impacts in Ghana
Project :
Author : Ian Yeboah; Francis Dodoo; Dr. Stephen Kwankye; Dr. Philomena Nyarko; Dr. Delali Badasu; Miss Costanza Biavaschi
Date : May 2010
Description : Although the impact of migration on Ghana has received a considerable amount of attention in the literature and the media, to date this analysis has been based more on anecdotal evidence than on robust statistics, and has focused primarily on the issues of remittances and brain drain. This report therefore aims to fill some of the gaps in the evidence base by providing the first nationally representative dataset on migration and development in Ghana, and by using econometric methodologies to assess a broad range of economic and social impacts that migration appears to be having on individuals and households who remain in Ghana. It also looks in detail at immigration to Ghana. Below we present some of the key findings of the report, and the implications of these for Ghanaian policymakers.
Development on the Move: Measuring and Optimising Migration’s Economic and Social Impacts in Georgia
Project :
Author : Robert Tchaidze; Karine Torosyan
Date : April 2010
Description : Migration – both forced and voluntary – has dramatically affected the former Soviet republic of Georgia in recent decades. Correspondingly, interest in the question of how migration affects the country is increasing. However, most of the migration studies about Georgia produced in the last few years have been descriptive only, focusing on the structural characteristics and the causes of migration rather than its developmental consequences. This report aims to fill in some of the gaps in the evidence base by providing the first comprehensive dataset on migration and development in Georgia, and by using rigorous propensity score matching methodologies to assess a range of the impacts that migration appears to be having on the development of individuals and households in Georgia. It then interprets these findings to draw out some key recommendations for policymakers.
Development on the Move: Measuring and Optimising Migration’s Economic and Social Impacts in Fiji
Project :
Author : Dr Miliakere Kaitani; Dr Manoranjan Mohanty; Mr Tolu Muliaina; Ms Vuki Buadromo; Mr Ronald Kumar; Dr Sunil Kumar; Professor Vijay Naidu
Date : December 2010
Description : Although migration come to play an increasingly significant role in Fiji’s economy and society over the past few decades, its impacts on the country’s development have been mixed. While skilled migrants contribute a great deal to Fiji through remittances and other forms of social capital they send home, their departure also deprives the country of vital human resources and appears to be leading to ‘brain drain’. However, to date, the data on these impacts has been fairly patchy. This report therefore aims to fill some of the gaps in the evidence base by providing the first nationally representative dataset on migration and development in Fiji, and by using econometric methodologies to assess some of the economic and social impacts that migration appears to be having on individuals and households who remain in the country. Below we present some of the key findings of the report, and the implications of these for Fijian policymakers.
Development on the Move: Measuring and Optimising Migration’s Economic and Social Impacts in Colombia
Project :
Author : Mauricio Cárdenas; Carlos Medina; Andrés Trejos
Date : April 2010
Description : Although Colombia has only become a major sender and recipient of international migrants relatively recently, migration and remittances have become important issues for policymakers. According to various sources, around 8 per cent of Colombians live abroad, primarily in the United States, Spain and Venezuela. Meanwhile, remittances currently constitute 3 per cent of Colombia’s GDP (as of 2008), up from just 1 per cent a decade before. These trends have generated an increasing interest in the causes and consequences of international migration in Colombia, despite a lack of comprehensive information about the characteristics of migrants and their patterns of movement. This report therefore aims to fill some of the gaps in the evidence base by providing the first dataset on migration and development in Colombia, and by using robust econometric methodologies to assess a range of economic and social impacts that migration appears to be having on individuals and households left behind. It then interprets these findings to draw out some key recommendations for policymakers.
Manufacturing firms’ performance in a trade liberalization process: the case of Uruguay
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Dayna Zaclicever and Laura Alejandra da Costa Ferre
Date : April 2009
Description : We evaluate the impact of trade liberalization and regional integration on the performance of Uruguayan manufacturing firms, analyzing how firms have responded to the trade policy changes implemented in Uruguay since the 1970s. Making use of a firm-level panel for the period 1983-2005, we apply robust techniques to estimate firms’ productivity and evaluate the effects of trade policy on productivity and survival probabilities. In order to assess whether these impacts differ across firms with different trade orientation, we classify firms according to their main destination market and the trade orientation of the industry they belong to. The results obtained suggest wide differences in productivity performance and trade policy impacts among firm classes (both within and between classification criteria), showing the relevance of counting with detailed firm-level data on destination markets in order to evaluate the differential effects that policy changes may have on each firm class.
 
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