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GDN FUNDED PAPERS
A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Two Secondary School Interventions: The Case of Pasig City Division School
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Aurora Hidalgo, Ernest Marc Castillo and Cid Terosa
Date : March 2013
Description : This project aims to identify institutions of excellence in instruction, research, and extension. These institutions are supported by CHED to attain world-class levels. Through networking arrangements, identified COEs and Centers of Development (CODs) act as role models engaging in extension services in the national, regional, and local community in the form of technology transfer, development of industry linkages and shared research resources, and financial assistance from other higher educational institutions within their particular geographic and academic area.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Selected Programs in Ghana's Education Sector
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Emefa Abra Annor-Amevor and Charlotte Esenam Afudego
Date : March 2013
Description : The report attempts to estimate the cost effectiveness of the capitation grant policy in promoting enrolment in public primary schools and to compare this against a combination of the capitation grants policy and a school feeding program in achieving the same objective over a period of about 10 years.
Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (A study in Karnataka)
Project :
Author : by Anaka Aiyar, Varun Sharma, Kavitha Narayanan, Nehal Jain, Prakhya Bhat, Shreekanth Mahendiran and Jyotsna Jha
Date : March 2013
Description : In India,expenditure on health is a mere 4 per cent of GDP, of which public spending is 17 per cent and the rest is private. Rashtriya Bima Swasthya Yojana Scheme was launched in 2008 by the Government of India, with the objective of providing health insurance to the poorest strata of society, i.e. below poverty line (BPL) households. It was introduced in Karnataka in 2009. This study is an attempt to investigate various dimensions of RSBY scheme with the help of both secondary data and primary data collected from a field survey. Specific objectives of study are: 1. To understand the patterns in healthcare access among poor households and analyse the impact of RSBY in influencing access to healthcare among the target households. 2. To understand the pattern of healthcare-related expenses among poor households and gauge the impact of RSBY as a measure to reduce the burden of medical expenditure on the target households. 3. To understand the gaps, if any, in information and service delivery by RSBY.
Cost-Effectiveness of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) and Provider-initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC) in a Hospital-Based Clinic in Indonesia
Project :
Author : by Adiatma Y.M. Siregar, Dindin Komarudin and Pipit Pitriyan
Date : March 2013
Description : The HIV epidemic in Indonesia is one of the fastest spreading epidemics in Asia.In response to this, HIV/AIDS control efforts have increased considerably in Indonesia in recent years, with voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) being a key component in the national strategic plan To complement the ongoing VCT effort, provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is also available to improve access to care by HIV-infected patients and strengthen national HIV/AIDS control efforts.This paper tries to address concerns through a cost-effectiveness study comparing VCT and PITC in Indonesia, based mainly on the number of HIV-positive cases detected and the benefit of early detection.
Cost-Effectiveness of Malaria Control Programs in Uganda: A Case Study of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying
Project :
Author : by Ibrahim Kasirye and Gemma Ahaibwe
Date : March 2013
Description : Malaria is endemic in Uganda. At least 95% of the country is infested with mosquitoes that carry the malaria-causing pathogens, and at any given time at least 50% of Ugandans who report illness are found to be suffering from malaria (Ssewanyana et al. 2004). The present study attempts to fill the policy vacuum by analyzing the cost effectiveness of the two current predominant methods of malaria prevention in Uganda: the provision of Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) and IRS.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Indoor Residual Spraying and Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets
Project :
Author : by Ebere Uneze and Golda Nwadike
Date : March 2013
Description : This report presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of two malaria interventions: Long-Lasting Insecticide treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying The objective is to provide evidence that will enable government officials and policymakers to bring about an improvement in allocation of resources for the good of the community.
A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of the Health Sector in Peru
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : Research Center of the University of the Pacific (CIUP)
Date : March 2013
Description : This document is concerned with improving government expenditure in the health sector,particularly maternal and neonatal health. The body of this work is a Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) of government expenditure and policies to increase institutional deliveries;i.e. deliveries in health establishments.
Japanese Award for Outstanding Research on Development 2012 - Gender Wage Gap when Women are Highly Inactive: Evidence from Repeated Imputations with Macedonian Data
Project :
Author : Marjan Petreski, Nikica Mojsoska Blazevski and Blagica Petreski
Date : March 2012
Description : The objective of this research is to understand if large gender employment and participation gaps in Macedonia can shed some light on the gender wage gap. A large contingent of inactive women in Macedonia including long-term unemployed due to the transition process, female remittance receivers from the male migrant, unpaid family workers in agriculture and so on, is outside employment, but is not necessarily having the worst labour-market characteristics. In addition, both gender wage gap and participation gap enlarge as education decreases, revealing the importance of non-random selection of women into employment. Though, the standard Heckman-type correction of the selectivity bias suggests that non-random selection exists, but the resulting wage gap remains at the same level even when selection has been considered. Instead, we perform repeated wage imputations for those not in work, by simply making assumptions on the position of the imputed wage observation with respect to the median. Then, we assess the impact of selection into employment by comparing estimated wage gaps on the base sample versus on an imputed sample. The main result is that selection explains most of the gender wage gap in the primary-education group (75 %), followed by the secondary-education group (55 %). In the tertiary group, the small initial gap vanishes once selection considered. This suggests that indeed non-working women are not those with the worst labour-market characteristics. Results suggest that gender wage discrimination in Macedonia is actually between 5.4 and 9.8 % and does not exist for the highly-educated women. The inability of the Heckman-type correction to document a role for selection in explaining the gender wage gap may be due to the criticisms to the exclusion restrictions and the large amount of missing wages.
Japanese Award for Outstanding Research on Development 2012 - Labor Market Effects of Social Security Enrollment for Maids in Ecuador
Project :
Author : Sara Alexandra Wong Chang
Date : March 2012
Description : The Government of Ecuador is enforcing the mandate that domestic workers receive from their employers (in general, the head of households) enrollment in social security. This policy could be an important tool for providing social insurance for this occupation category as domestic workers are mostly women from low income families. Recent data show an increase in the percentage of maids enrolled in social security. However, the theory predicts that the higher cost that social insurance represents for both the employer and the employee, may have impacts on labor outcomes: wages and employment may fall with respect to wages without social insurance, or, adjustments may take place at the margin through changes in hours of work. Data show a declining number of maids, perhaps an indication that this social protection policy may be, in practice, backfiring its intended beneficiaries. Thus, the objective of this study is twofold. First, we aim to estimate impacts on labor outcomes of the employer social security enrollment mandate for maid services in Ecuador. We also aim to discuss policy design issues that may help other developing countries in setting up similar social protection policies. The main question we address is: How have the employer sponsored social security coverage mandate for maids impacted real monthly wages and hours worked of maids? We use individual data from the national survey of employment in Ecuador and propensity score matching to construct a suitable control group, which is one of the key steps when addressing causality of this policy. Results suggest evidence of negative impacts on both wages and hours worked of domestic workers. This negative impact should be weighed against the expected benefits from social security. However, a survey on maids’ opinion show that maids know little or nothing of most benefits they are entitled to when enrolled, thus do not use these benefits. Then for this social protection policy to be effective more effort should be placed to support both, employers so they can afford the higher cost –perhaps through subsidies for households employers–, and maids so these vulnerable employees gain effective access to the benefits of social security.
Awards and Medals Competition 2012 - The Part-time Premium Enigma: An Assessment of the Chilean Case
Project :
Author : Virginia Robano and Andrea Bentancor Cazenave
Date : March 2012
Description : Chile has one of the lowest female labor force participation rates among Latin American countries. To promote female participation, part-time jobs are being encouraged (they are seen as a way to balance paid work, care and chores activities). Simple correlations between part-time work and hourly earnings are positive, suggesting the existence of a part-time premium. However, using the Klein & Vella (2009, 2010) technique on Chilean data, we show that after controlling for sample selection and endogeneity in the part-time work decision, such premium does not exist. Furthermore, depending on the sub-group of females considered, significant earnings penalties appear. Those in formal jobs are penalized, while the others are not. The pattern among dependent workers and independent workers is similar, the first are penalized while the others not. This paper has important policy implications: the promotion of part-time jobs has adverse consequences in terms of gender equality and labor market incentives: beyond lack of perspectives, low probability of receiving training, high job turnover, low probability of accessing to public social welfare benefits and low future pensions, women are penalized when they work part-time in formal employment.
 
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