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GDN FUNDED PAPERS
Improving Girls’ Access to Secondary Schooling: A Policy Simulation for Uganda
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Mildred Barungi and Ibrahim Kasirye
Date : March 2013
Description : Despite the successful implementation of the policy of Universal Secondary Education in Uganda in 2007, overall secondary school enrolment, especially among girls, has remained low. Among other reasons, high cost of schooling is cited as the major constraint limiting access to secondary education. Uganda’s National Development Plan proposes to bring about gender equity in secondary school enrolment through the provision of bursaries/stipends to poor girls to enable them to attend school. In this study, we examine the potential impact of this policy proposal (Policy I) and compare it with the alternative of providing free transport along with the stipends (Policy II). The findings indicate that both policy proposals would generate net benefits to society, but more benefits would accrue from the provision of tuition stipends only. Compared to Policy II, Policy I is more cost-effective and therefore the preferred policy option.
Conditional Cash Transfers Program in Guatemala Policy Simulation and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Jorge Benavides
Date : March 2013
Description : In 2008, the government of Guatemala (GOG) decided that the best way to deal with the problem of poverty in Guatemala was through the implementation of a program that enables the poorest families in the country to send their children to school and to regularly visit health centers and posts for consults and controls. The initiative aimed to replicate the model promoted in different countries in Latin America. The objective of the policy simulation analysis is to identify more efficient options to improve public policies, giving policy-makers enough information to re-allocate resources, to focus public efforts on vulnerable groups, and to select the most cost-effective alternative to achieve the goals of the country.
Complementary Policies to Increase Poor People’s Access to Higher Education
Project :
Author : by Mohamad Fahmi, Achmad Maulana and Arief A. Yusuf
Date : March 2013
Description : The authors see a weakness in the merit-based government scholarship program, Bidik Misi, for students from poor families; most of them fail to meet the minimum academic requirements. This paper provides a policy simulation that compares two programs – private tutoring voucher (PTV) and conditional cash transfer (CCT) – to complement the Bidik Misi scholarship to boost the number of poor students eligible for the support. To this end, the authors offer a policy targeted at second and third year high school students at public schools.
Increasing Access to Water Services in Bandung Regency: A Policy Simulations Exercise
Project :
Author : by Ahmad Komarulzaman
Date : September 2013
Description : In Indonesia, it is estimated that more than 48 million people do not have access to proper drinking water (UNICEF, 2006 in Deeks and Setiono, 2008). In some regions of the country, many people still rely on water supply which is not provided by the government. For example, in Bandung Regency, as recently as 2010 only 8.32 percent of the population was served by a piped water system.This study will try simulating how two different approaches will work to provide water services to the households that currently have no permanent water source.
Policy Simulation for Water Enterprise in Guatemala City: Pricing Water towards Financial Sustainability
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Jorge Benavides
Date : March 2013
Description : Over the past years, the availability, use, and appropriate compensation for the use of water resources in Guatemala have become a constant source of conflict between the various stakeholders. Although Guatemala is a potential water producer and exporter, problems of access, quality, and conservation are problematic.The daily problem that Guatemala faces is largely related to the allocation of funds and demand for water by the people. Experts have identified eight issues on which to focus attention; however, we believe that financial sustainability is the first issue that should be addressed because lack of funds is the main constraint for the development of the sector.
Policy Simulation Analysis in the Water Sector
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Bela Gevorkyan
Date : March 2013
Description : Access to water supply and its affordability is definitely one of the central points in current policy discussions in Armenia. As it does and will continue to require significant monetary injections into the sector from the central government, discussing ways to improve targeting to help those who are in need, including budgeting issues, are of central importance.The paper discusses the experience of using various tariff structures to address the issue of affordability, looking at using water tariffs to redistribute income between customers, especially in circumstances where there are no well-designed and effective welfare programs. However, the problem is that this creates serious conflicts with efficiency by creating perverse incentives to those who receive services at lower tariffs. Eventually, the subsidy may or may not reach the poor, depending on their consumption levels, and the fact of being connected to the system and the tariff design structure itself.
Philippines: Towards Expanding Access to Healthcare Services - A Policy Simulation Report
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Cid L. Terosa and Rachel Lynn Belandres
Date : April 2013
Description : The Aquino Health Agenda (2012 to 2016) is focused on three strategic areas of action: to upgrade the healthcare facilities, to expand health insurance coverage to the poor, and to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since this agenda is crucial in expanding access to healthcare services, the policies under it should be simulated to determine if they are really pro-poor and cost effective. This study, aimed at expanding access to healthcare services, simulates the effects of two policies under the Aquino Health Agenda — upgrading the healthcare facilities under the Health Facilities Enhancement Program (HFEP), and expanding health insurance coverage under the National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) — specifically in terms of increasing the number of live births attended by skilled health personnel in Western Visayas, using the Benefit Incidence Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Analysis.
Vector Control in Malaria Policy Simulations on Combined Use of ITN and IRS
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Miriam W. O. Omolo
Date : April 2013
Description : The Government of Kenya, in its economic blueprint “Vision 2030: A Globally Competitive and Prosperous Kenya”, acknowledges that preventable diseases such as HIV/AIDs, tuberculosis and malaria still take a heavy toll on the health of its population, despite the gradual fall in the incidence of these diseases. The government, under the national malaria strategy aims to reduce the incidence of malaria to below 25 percent.It is, therefore, important to undertake a policy simulation to establish the impact for wider control of the malaria vector in order to inform the ministry of health, for this is a strategy that has already been accepted in the national malaria strategy but has not been implemented. The combination of the two interventions could also have cost savings advantages, which could facilitate need-based allocation of resources.
HIV/AIDS Prevention Interventions in Uganda: A Policy Simulation
Project :
Author : by Gemma Ahaibwe and Ibrahim Kasirye
Date : March 2013
Description : This policy simulation estimates the potential costs and impact of rolling out two HIV prevention methods — Safe Male Circumcision and Voluntary Counseling and Testing — on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Using data from the recent Uganda Aids Indicator Survey 2011 as well as administrative cost data, we estimate the likely costs and impact of expanding the above two methods of HIV/AIDS control. Results from the policy simulation suggest that scaling up safe male circumcision to reach 66 percent of the uncircumcised males between the ages of 15–49 years would help avert almost 121,278 new cases of HIV infection by 2020, resulting in an average cost of $885 per HIV infection averted, with net cost savings of US$ 6,515 per case. On the other hand, scaling up VCT to full coverage (100 percent) among adults between 15- 49 years (both male and female) would result in averting 113,813 new infections by 2020, resulting in an average cost of $948 per HIV infection averted and net savings of US$ 6,452 per case.
Stimulating Policy Alternatives for Better Maternal Health: The Case of Nepal
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Devendra P.D. Shreshtha
Date : May 2013
Description : Lifetime chances of dying from maternal causes in Nepal are estimated to beone in 80 (Population Reference BLifetime chances of dying from maternal causes in Nepal are estimated to beone in 80 (Population Reference Bureau data sheet, 2011). In Nepal, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR)is estimated to have declined from 539 in 1996 to 281 in 2006. The Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) in its revised Safe Motherhood and Neonatal Health Long Term Plan 200617 has set the target for attaining an MMR of 134 per 100,000 live births and a reduction in the neonatal mortality rate from 33 per 1,000 to 15 per 1,000 by the year 2017. Although the government has made significant improvements in reducing maternal mortality, the number of births attended by SBAs remains a challenge.ureau data sheet, 2011). In Nepal, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR)is estimated to have declined from 539 in 1996 to 281 in 2006. The Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) in its revised Safe Motherhood and Neonatal Health Long Term Plan 200617 has set the target for attaining an MMR of 134 per 100,000 live births and a reduction in the neonatal mortality rate from 33 per 1,000 to 15 per 1,000 by the year 2017. Although the government has made significant improvements in reducing maternal mortality, the number of births attended by SBAs remains a challenge.
 
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