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GDN FUNDED PAPERS
Suburbanization and Inequality in Transport Mobility in Yaoundé, Cameroon: Drawing Public Policy for African Cities
Project : Urbanization
Author : Ongolo Zogo Valérie, Boniface Ngah Epo
Date : 2013
Description : This study sets to explore the nature of inequality in mobility in the metropolitan region of Yaoundé city using data from the urban displacement plan, to identify pertinent orientations in the transfer of competencies towards local councils. A series of methodologies are combined; Multiple Correspondence Analysis to construct a mobility index, the decomposition framework to explore the nature inequality of mobility in the different Councils of the Yaoundé city and the Regression-based decomposition to identify factors that determine both cost of mobility and inequality in cost of mobility. Results identify differences in mobility between the urban centre (CBD) and the different local councils as well as between these councils.
Land Use Regulations and Urbanization in the Developing World: Evidence from over 600 Cities
Project : Urbanization
Author : Paavo Monkkonen, Lucas Ronconi
Date : 2013
Description : In this report, authors present a series of stylized facts about the prevalence, determinants and impacts of land use regulation in Asia, Latin America, and the rest of the world. In order to do this, we combine several data sources, including surveys of regulation from the World Bank, remote sensing data, and data from various countries’ censuses. Asian cities have more stringent land use regulation in some areas compared to Latin American cities, but the opposite occurs in other areas. The largest variation in regulations is across countries rather than across continents or within countries. Economic development is negatively correlated with land use regulations, even after controlling for the general regulatory environment. Cities that are more constrained by water and mountains tend to have more regulations. Other major determinants are legal systems and urbanization pressures. Although land use regulations are not clearly associated with population density or urban compactness, they do seem to restrict business expansion and household formation, though only to a minor degree.
Policy Simulation: Achieving Higher Educational Attainments at the Primary Level in Bangladesh
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by S.M. Zulfiqar Ali
Date : 2013
Description : The Bangladesh's Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) envisions that every school child has access to primary level institutions that provide all the necessary facilities, and continues in school to receive achieve quality education. The focus of this simulation exercise is on scaling up two primary education interventions: one, school feeding programand two, primary education stipend program and; to point out policy options to scale up primary education interventions, with a view to reduce dropout rates in primary education levels in Bangladesh
Redistribution of Funds for the Ministry of Education Programs - A Policy Simulation
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Axel Rivas and Pablo Bezem
Date : 2013
Description : Argentina suffers deep regional inequalities with regard to its economic and social development. Moreover, there is an enormous imbalance in the allocation of fiscal resources between the provinces, stemming from a rigid distribution of federal resources that cannot be modified without the consent of the 24 sub-national jurisdictions. The authors propose alternative distribution schemes for the national educational resources in order to achieve higher levels of justice for students and teachers. The simulations consider different schemes for resource distribution based on a set of economic, social, and educational variables, depending on the objective of each program. The distribution of program funds will be reviewed at the federal level, focusing on compensation components based on the fiscal capacity of the provinces, the financial effort they expend on education, their poverty level and the infrastructure needs.
Simulating Policy Alternatives for Dropouts and Girls’ Scholarship Program in Community Primary Schools
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Kishor Maharjan
Date : May 2013
Description : It has been estimated that in Nepal, the dropout rate of girl students at the community primary schools is as high as 48 percent. This has raised concerns among all sections of society regarding the utilization of scarce resources. his has been attributed to rampant poverty, to social norms that encourage gender discrimination, and to lower socioeconomic status of people living in rural areas; 25 percent of the population is still below the poverty line. Hence, although the ultimate policy goal is to increase the primary level cycle completion rate, the immediate goal of this simulation exercise would be: To reduce the girls’ dropout rate in government-managed primary schools in Nepal.
Restructuring Upper Secondary Education System in Mexico: Improving Education Quality
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Antonio Surisadai Gómez López and Sunny A. Villa
Date : March 2013
Description : This policy simulation consists in restructuring the upper secondary education system in Mexico. The main goal is to improve the quality of education at this level. The policy consists in reducing the three existing subsystems – general baccalaureate, technological baccalaureate and technical professional education – to two subsystems: general and bivalent education. Our results indicate that if the policy is accomplished, the enrolment in upper secondary education will increase; the technical professional students’ performance in ENLACE will improve; students from disadvantaged backgrounds will receive better education, and there will be greater equity in educational opportunities.
Policy Simulation of Educational Assistance Programs for Girls in Nigeria
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Ebere Uneze and Ibrahim Tajudeen
Date : March 2013
Description : In spite of the efforts made by the government to increase access to affordable education, access to basic education and enrolment of the girl child remains poor. While this problem is very profound in developing countries, its present form in Nigeria requires even more urgent attention. It is against this backdrop that this study conducts a policy simulation exercise on two educational assistance programmes for girls: free tuition for all with stipends for girls (Policy A) and free tuition for all with transport for girls (Policy B) to boost female primary school enrolment.
Policy Simulation Analysis in the Education Sector
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Haik Maghakyan
Date : March 2013
Description : The last two decades of economic and social downturn have impacted the higher education sector in Armenia. Access to higher education is now strongly correlated with the level of poverty of the household.Therefore, a policy adjustment is required to address the key factors that limit access to higher education by the beneficiaries of the lowest quintile.
Intercultural Bilingual Education Program for Better Performance in Schools: The Case of the Indigenous Children of the Amazon
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Betty M. Alvarado,
Date : March 2013
Description : This study describes the design and the ex-ante evaluation of an Intercultural Bilingual Education1 Program in the Amazon Region in Peru. The target beneficiaries are the non-Spanish-speaking children from three Amazon ethnic communities: the Awarunas, Ashaninkas and Shipibos-Conibos. They are a small minority; the poorest Peruvians with the lowest level of performance in reading comprehension and basic mathematics, and the lowest level of enrollment, schooling and transition rates.
Interactive Radio/Audio Interventions in Elementary Schools in Karnataka, India
Project : Strengthening Institutions to Improve Public Expenditure Accountability
Author : by Shubhashansha Bakshi and Jyotsna Jha
Date : March 2013
Description : In 2004, the Government of Karnataka (GoK) was approached by the Education Development Centre, Inc (EDC), a global non-profit organization, to pilot radio interventions in Karnataka. The EDC had experimented with the idea of using radio as a medium to help students and teachers improve learning outcomes on a scale basis across various parts of the world. It was felt that radio could be a cost effective tool to reach a large number of government schools with low expenditure and comparatively larger reach. The present policy simulation exercise attempts to answer three questions: Whether radio/audio based interventions are helping in improving classroom transaction and learning outcomes? Whether these are cost effective solutions for improving the classroom transactions and learning outcomes? What is a more cost effective mode of delivery: radio or audio, or a combination of both?
 
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