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GDN FUNDED PAPERS
Market based policies for urban air pollution with evidence from Santiago, Chile
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Juan Pablo Montero
Date : 2002
Description : The author studies the design of environmental policies for a regulator that has incomplete information on firms’ emissions and costs of production and abatement (e.g., air pollution in cities with numerous small polluting sources). Because of incomplete information on emissions, there is no policy that can implement the first-best. Since the regulator can observe firms’ abatement technologies, however, it is possible to design a quasi-emissions trading program based on this information and show that it can provide higher welfare than command-andcontrol regulation such as technology or emission standards. I then empirically examine this claim using evidence from a particulate quasi-emissions trading program in Santiago, Chile.
Water for life: The impact of the privatization of water services on child mortality
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Sebastian Galiani, Ernesto Schargrodsky, Paul Gertler
Date : 2002
Description : In the 1990s Argentina embarked on one of the largest privatization campaigns in the world as part of a structural reform plan. The program included the privatization of local water companies covering approximately 30 percent of the country’s municipalities. Since clean water and sewage treatment are critical to control the spread of infectious and parasitic diseases; access expansions, quality improvements, and tariff changes associated to privatization may have affected health outcomes. Using the variation in ownership of water provision across time and space generated by the privatization process, we find that child mortality fell 5 to 7 percent in areas that privatized their water services overall; and that the effect was largest in the poorest areas. In fact, we estimate that child mortality fell by 24 percent in the poorest municipalities. These results suggest that the privatization of water services prevented approximately 375 deaths of young children per year. We check the robustness of these estimates using cause specific mortality. While privatization is associated with significant reductions in deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases, it was uncorrelated with deaths from causes unrelated to water conditions.
The Effect of Contingent Credit Lines on Banks' Liquidity Demand
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Martin Gonzalez Eiras
Date : 2002
Description : The author analyzes the effect of contingent credit lines on banks' liquidity demand in Argentina. These lines provide insurance to systemic risk by enhancing the Central Bank s ability to act as a lender of last resort in the event of a crisis. Theory predicts that commercial banks with limited access to inter-national capital markets should reduce their holdings of liquid assets after the announcement of the contingent credit lines. This prediction is tested by means of a difference-in-differences regression, with domestic banks as the treatment group and foreign-owned banks as the control group. The results show that domestic banks significantly reduced their liquidity holdings, the adjustment taking place in two quarters.
Exploring the implications of official dollarization on macroeconomic volatility
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Roberto Duncan
Date : 2002
Description : It has been argued that (official) dollarization facilitates financial integration and a better performance of the domestic banking system. However, before adopting dollarization it is necessary a deep discussion on the pros and cons of this scheme. With a few exceptions, the advantages of dollarization have not been discussed in a dynamic general equilibrium framework, especially for partially dollarized economies such as Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, that are supposed to be good candidates to follow this kind of regime. After reviewing the arguments for and against dollarization, this paper explores its implications on the volatility of the main macroeconomic variables of an emerging small open economy that faces terms-of-trade shocks. I use dynamic equilibrium models as a laboratory to study these issues and contrast two environments: a partially dollarized economy with flexible exchange rate (calibrated for the Peruvian economy) and a fully dollarized economy. Simulation exercises are performed to analyze in both cases the volatility of key variables such as output, inflation rate, consumption and investment, among others. I find that full dollarization implies (1) higher real volatility but that it is not significantly different from the volatility generated in a flexible exchange rate; (2) lower inflation level and volatility; (3) slightly higher or similar fiscal deficit volatility; and (4) higher output response to terms-oftrade shocks.
Social Exclusion in Peru: An Invisible Wall - A Research Program on the Relationship between Ethnicity and Economic and Social Outcomes
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Jaime Saavedra, Maximo Torero and Hugo Nopo
Date : 2002
Description : Peru is a country were social exclusion is very profound but at the same time very subtle. Sociological and anthropological evidence suggest that there are several mechanisms through which ethnic and racial discrimination affect the lives of a large part of the population. However, precise measurements of the extent to which the potentially excluded groups are affected, are almost nonexistent. In Peru the majority of the urban population has a mixed background, and most of them will be mestizos. However, this mixed population is and is perceived as highly heterogeneous. Our initial research in this field has shown that even among mestizos, different racial backgrounds have important implications over socioeconomic outcomes, in particular over earnings. We know much less about the specific exclusion mechanisms. This proposal is based on the idea that there are social exclusion mechanisms related to ethnic and racial differences that have effects on the access and accumulation to different public and private assets, and that exclusion also affect the returns to some of those assets in the labor market, with crucial implications over poverty and well being. In this proposal we set the plan to continue the analysis of a data set constructed to approximate the ethnic heterogeneity in Peruvian urban areas. Our data includes self-reported discrimination events, race, mother tongue of the parents, language spoken at home and at school; and education and origin of the previous generation among others. We will analyze the relation between ethnic and racial heterogeneity and occupational segregation, access to education and to social networks. Additionally, we propose the collection and analysis of a new data set that will allow us to explore the extent to which there are exclusion mechanisms operating in the hiring process in the urban labor market.
Globalization, Development, and Municipal Solid Waste Management in Third World Cities
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Martin Medina-Martinez
Date : 2002
Description : Municipal Solid waste management (MSWM) constitutes a serious problem in many Third World cities. Most cities do not collect the totality of wastes generated, and of the wastes collected, only a fraction receives proper disposal. The insufficient collection and inappropriate disposal of solid wastes represent a source of water, land and air pollution, and pose risks to human health and the environment. Over the next several decades, globalization, rapid urbanization and economic growth in the developing world tend to further deteriorate this situation. Cities spend increasing resources attempting to improve their MSWM. This paper examines the conventional approaches to MSWM used by development agencies in general, and by bilateral and multilateral development organizations in particular. The paper argues that conventional approaches usually involve solutions that are centralized, bureaucratic, that ignore the potential contribution of the informal sector, with little public participation in the decision process, and often use imported technology. Conventional approaches often fail. The socioeconomic conditions in the Third World are so different from the developed world, that a different approach is needed. This paper proposes a policy framework for improving waste management, and argues that a decentralized model for MSWM may be more appropriate to the conditions prevalent in the developing world. In the proposed model, the specific needs of low-income areas would be considered; it would promote community participation and incorporate informal refuse collectors and scavengers into public-private partnerships, micro-enterprises, or scavenger cooperatives. The proposed approach could help solve the problem of solid wastes in a socially desirable, economically viable and environmentally sound manner"
Impact of International Trade and Multinational Corporations on the Environment and Sustainable Livelihoods of Rural Women in Akwa- Ibom State, Niger Delta Region , Nigeria
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Comfort Hassan, Janice Olawoye and Kent Nnadozie
Date : 2002
Description : The overall aim of the study is to reach a better understanding of the impact of international trade and multinational corporation activities on sustainable livelihoods of rural dwellers (with particular emphasis upon women) in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. The specific objectives are: 1. To document the array of livelihoods activities that are gender specific and to assess the sustainability of these activities; 2. To understudy the specific threats to these livelihood activities occasioned by oil exploration and production; 3. To document how these impacts affect women; 4. To assess the impact of community development interventions, if any, of the multinational corporations upon local population, particularly women; 5. To identify the various deficiencies and imbalances in the trade agreements as they relate to trade and investment between countries, and proffer categorical imperatives that will help to alleviate threats to livelihood activities;
Private sector response to HIV/AIDS in Swaziland: impact, response, vulnerability and barriers to implementation of workplace HIV/AIDS prevention programmes
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Fred Tusuubira Muwanga
Date : 2001
Description : Findings of this study reveal that the private sector in Swaziland is facing economic hardships due to the impact of HIV/AIDS. The excess morbidity and mortality are costing the private sector financially, economically and socially. There is increased loss of skilled and experienced labour. For the private sector to remain viable businesses, it is necessary and urgent to approach the epidemic with the seriousness it deserves. This includes well-elaborated prevention programmes and concerted mitigation strategies at company level, in collaboration with other businesses, Government, NGOs and the civil society.
The benefits of roads in rural Peru: A transaction costs approach
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Javier Alfredo Escobal
Date : 2001
Description : This study seeks to empirically assess the determinant factors of market access for poor farmers in rural Peru. In particular, we evaluate the role of key public assets like rural roads in reducing transaction costs and, through that channel, in improving the incomes of rural households. The study presents and implements a methodological proposal to quantify transaction costs. The results show that transaction costs in the area under study equal 50% of the sales value, being appreciably higher (60%) for producers who are connected to the market via non-motorized tracks. Likewise, the research confirms that transaction costs are much higher for small-scale farmers than for large-scale ones (67% versus 32% of the sales value). The results demonstrate that besides distance and time to the market, key variables for explaining the market integration strategy (i.e. when to sell and to what market) include several indicators associated with how much experience the farmer has with the market in which he operates; how stable his relations are with the different agents he trades with, and; how much of an investment he makes to obtain relevant information and to monitor compliance with implicit contracts associated with the transactions completed. The study shows that, through lowering transaction costs, access to an improved rural road system can improved substantially the incomes of the rural poor in Peru.
Urban rail systems: a planning framework to increase their success
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Ela Babalik Sutcliffe
Date : 2001
Description : This paper presents a research that was aimed at developing a better understanding of the factors that influence the success of urban rail systems. The principle aim was to develop a methodology for measuring and identifying the factors behind their success, and to develop a planning framework, which can help enhance the success of new metros and light rail systems. The framework can help planners to develop successful systems, as well as increase the success of existing ones. The planning framework was developed based on the analysis of eight urban rail systems from Western Countries (USA, Canada, and Britain). The analysis of these systems has been carried out in two stages. First, background factors were observed: the urban, economic, political and institutional factors in which these systems were developed were analysed. In addition, the planning background and factors regarding the operation of the systems were observed. Second, the success of the systems was analysed. In the analysis, possible links between success and background factors were established. These links have been used as the basis for developing the planning framework, which had two main functions: to predict how successful a new urban rail system will be; and to make recommendations on how its success can be enhanced. Because the planning framework was based on the analysis of eight case studies, it was important to validate it against other urban rail systems. The framework was validated against nine systems from USA, Canada, and France. In addition to the summary of the above research, this paper compares the findings of the research with three cases in Turkey. The comparison reveals important results about the urban rail planning process in Turkey in comparison to the USA, Canada and Britain. It is also seen that planning and policy-making processes in developing countries are different from those in developed countries, and that there may be different factors behind the success of urban rail systems in the former. In the light of these discussions, the paper concludes with remarks on how this study can be developed further to analyse the urban rail experiences of developing countries.
 
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