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GDN FUNDED PAPERS
The effects of markets on the use of forest for the livelihood of indigenous households in the Colombian Amazon
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Catalina Trujillo
Date : 2008
Description : We analyze the use of forest products and services for income generation among indigenous households in the Colombian Amazon. We find that families rely on a wide portfolio of market and subsistence activities. These activities change when households have increased access to markets, and as household income levels rise. Market integration decreases the dependency on environment (as a share of household income), but increases the extraction of forest products in absolute terms. Increases in total household income are thus associated with both more market income and more income from forest extraction. As markets open and household incomes increase, pressures on environmental resources and from agroforestry activities will likely also increase.
Entertainment - education and rice pest management: A radio soap opera in Vietnam
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : K.L. Heong, , M.M. Escalada, N.H. Huan, V.H. Ky Ba, P.V. Quynh, L.V. Thiet, H.V. Chien
Date : 2008
Description : A radio soap opera created using the entertainment–education (E–E) process contributed towards creating favorable attitudes and change practices in rice farmers’ pest management in Vietnam. Between pre- and post-launch farmers’ insecticide sprays dropped 31% from 1.9 to 1.3 sprays per season. Corresponding changes in attitudes were also observed. In addition, farmers also reduced their nitrogen and seed use by 7% and 9%, respectively. In the post-test farmers who had listened had higher reductions in insecticide sprays (60%), nitrogen (9%) and seeds (33%) compared to those who had not listened to the soap. There were also similar changes in their belief attitudes favoring judicious use of pesticides, fertilizers and seeds. We also found that the E–E process provided a platform for communication between technical specialists and creative artists, thus enabling technical information to be simplified and incorporated into drama scripts. of the terms speci…ed in the international agreement either by itself or by others. I show, …rst, why countries may prefer to shift most promises of investment in clean technologies to other countries, despite the fact that these promises are usually non-enforceable by any international organization. Second, I determine countries’optimal investments in these technologies, and an- alyze how their particular investments depend on how demanding the international agreement is, and on the importance that countries assign to each others’relative ful…llment of their part of the treaty.
Free-riding and Cooperation in International Environmental Agreements
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Ana Espinola Arredondo
Date : 2008
Description : This paper examines the negotiation of an international environmental agreement in which di¤erent countries determine the (non-enforceable) promises of investment in clean technologies to be included in the agreement. Furthermore, it analyzes countries’ optimal investment in emission-reducing technologies, considering that, in addition to the utility that a country perceives from an improved environmental quality, it is also concerned about the relative …fulfillment of the terms speci…ed in the international agreement either by itself or by others. I show, …rst, why countries may prefer to shift most promises of investment in clean technologies to other countries, despite the fact that these promises are usually non-enforceable by any international organization. Second, I determine countries’optimal investments in these technologies, and analyze how their particular investments depend on how demanding the international agreement is, and on the importance that countries assign to each others’relative ful…fillment of their part of the treaty.
On the duration of political power in Africa: the role of oil rent
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Luc Desire Omgba
Date : 2008
Description : It is often underlined that African oil producing countries are politically unstable as a result of the role that this natural resource can play in political incentives. Based on data documenting the duration in office of 101 heads of State of 26 African countries (North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa), our findings reveal a surprising twist on the conventional wisdom: the purported instability of oil producing African countries does not appear to extend to the executive branch of the State. Conversely, using survival analysis including non-parametric and parametric estimators and controlling for many factors that may affect a leader’s tenure, our research suggests a positive link between oil rents and the duration in office of African leaders. Our research also reveals that for other minerals rents, do not witness the same stabilizing effect. Our interpretation of these results is grounded in an analysis of the practicalities of oil investment. Investment in oil requires massive financial investments and considerable production technology. To ensure the profitability of these investments, investors are tempted to give their supports to political leaders with which the contracts were negotiated, thereby reducing the risk of losing the property rights that may accompany a change in the executive branch of the state. In addition, the tensions of the oil international market have global repercussions. Since oil has a strategic aspect that other mining products do not, the international community is tempted to exert fewer pressures for a change in leadership in an oil producing State regardless of what type of political regime may govern the country.
Impact Of OECD Countries Agricultural Liberalization On Household Welfare In Nepal
Project :
Author : Binod K. Karmacharya
Date : January 2008
Description : Following OECD liberalization: (i) Nepal eventually experiences small increase in domestic prices for paddy/milled rice, maize, wheat, and sugarcane/sugar; and (ii) for three of the four commodities, household welfare declines in both short and long run because Nepali households tend to be net food importers. In conclusion, OECD agricultural liberalization tends to be harmful to the extent that it matters
Political economy of transnational water insecurity: What does the Mekong River (1985-2005) say?
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Rongxing Guo
Date : January 2007
Description : On the basis of cross-section and time-series data, we find that water resources within the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) – an area including large sections of Cambodia and Lao PDR, and the north and northeast regions of Thailand, and the Mekong delta of Vietnam – tend to be more seriously polluted in the transnational areas than in the other areas. Specifically, the estimated coefficients show that political influence on transnational water pollution is more significant in areas near ‘the international border along which a river runs’ (denoted by BORDER2) than in places near ‘the international border across which a river runs’ (denoted by BORDER1). In addition, transboundary water pollution is found to be very sensitive to the dummy of ‘territorial dispute’. The estimated result also shows that the chance of territorial disputes is higher in BORDER1 than in BORDER2 areas. Finally, ASEAN membership is found to reduce some water pollutants (such as total phosphate) though its effect on the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is not significant.
Crafting a socially inclusive service policy to address vulnerability of marginalized communities: lessons from Nepal's education policy
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Nephil Matangi Maskay and Rojan Bajracharya
Date : January 2007
Description : Social exclusion contributes to fragility of states and can potentially lead to domestic conflict situation. In Nepal, the exclusion of Dalits (untouchable caste) and indigenous communities from the process of development has magnified socio- economic inequality and contributed to a decade of civil war waged by the Communist Party of Nepal- Maoist. Presently, the conflict has come to some cessation but for the long term peace settlement, the country needs to properly address the issues of social exclusion. To study this important issue, the research examines the education policy of the Government of Nepal (GON). GON’s centralized education structure had resulted in mediocre education attainment of the population. In response to this, GON had decentralized the educational structure in 2002 by transferring of authority to School Management Committee (SMC); this was aimed to strengthen school activity through the participation of local communities in general and marginalized communities in particular. The study analyzes the impact of the composition of SMC’s on educational attainment of marginalized population via. a Dynamic Panel Data Model. The empirical analysis suggests that the representation of Dalits and Indigenous has positive impact on year of schooling of all populace. However, the performance of SMC is more indispensable than representation because its impact is more prominent. The study therefore recommends on three points to Nepal for crafting a socially inclusive policy in reference to education composition of SMC: Reservation of Marginalized Communities; Enhancement in Skill of Marginalized Member; and Proper Supervision.
Court decentralization and women’s well being
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Raul Francisco Andrade Ciudad and Jimena Montenegro Doig
Date : January 2007
Description : The study empirically evaluates if increasing access to justice reduces the rate of domestic violence against women. It pursues the impact evaluation of a program to decentralize courts carried out in Peru, by which 43 new courts were installed in poor localities of the country. Matching techniques are used to find control localities that were comparable to treated localities before courts were installed. In addition, the installation of courts is instrumented using electoral results of the 2000 Peruvian presidential elections and 1998 Peruvian municipal elections. It has been documented that President Fujimori had the tendency to favor localities that he considered important for his electoral ambitions by allocating different services, including judicial services (Schady 1999, 2002; Paxson and Schady 2002) to them. This fact justifies the use of electoral results as instrumental variables. The paper uses data from the Demographic and Health Survey (2004-2006), focused on women’s health, which includes a module about domestic violence. The results show that the program did not have any significant impact on reducing the rate of domestic violence. This is valid for physical and psychological violence, and for different specifications. The results give support to the literature emphasizing cultural reasons as the main driving force for domestic violence. They show that interventions prioritizing formal institutions such as access to justice or making norms and punishment stronger may be insufficient to reduce rates of domestic violence. If reducing domestic violence is considered an important health and social problem, integral interventions, affecting formal and informal institutions should be put in place.
Impact of land use regulations: Evidence from India’s cities
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Kala Seetharam Sridhar
Date : January 2007
Description : The ineffectiveness of some states in providing even a basic level of services such as housing to a majority of their communities is an important problem to overcome. The factors causing state ineffectiveness in this area may be economic, political or institutional. India’s cities are characterized by strong land use controls, but their impacts on city growth and the urban poor have drawn little attention. This paper deals with strong land use regulations prevalent in India’s cities, which have negative impacts on the city’s spatial form, consumption of floor space and affordable housing by the vulnerable, and the delivery of public services. That land use regulations in India’s cities have not been very effective may be seen in the fact that the consumption of floor space per person in cities such as Mumbai is only 2.9 square meters, which is one of the lowest residential floor areas per person anywhere in the world. I study the impact of the restrictive land use controls such as floor area ratio (FAR), and urban land ceiling on city growth in India, using standard econometric techniques. I find that population suburbanizes in response to a relaxation of FAR norms in the suburbs. This suggests that a relaxation of FAR norms in the central city will increase floor area consumption of poor households and increase affordability of housing. However, I find land use controls have no impact on suburbanization of jobs in India’s cities. The paper concludes by summarizing policy implications of the research.
Is a governmental micro-credit program for the poor really pro-poor? evidence from Vietnam
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Nguyen Viet Cuong
Date : January 2007
Description : It is argued that without collateral the poor often face binding borrowing constraints in the formal credit market. This justifies a micro-credit program, which is operated by the Vietnam Bank for Social Policies to provide the poor with preferential credit. The present paper examines poverty targeting and the impact of the micro-credit program. It is found that the program is not very pro-poor in terms of targeting. The nonpoor account for a larger proportion of the participants. The nonpoor also tend to receive larger amounts of credit compared to the poor. However, the program has reduced the poverty rate of the participants. The positive impact is found for all three Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty measures.
 
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