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GDN FUNDED PAPERS
The Short-Term Impacts of a CCT Program for Schooling on the Sexual Behavior of Young Women
Project :
Author : Sarah Baird; Ephraim Chirwa; Craig McIntosh; Berk Özler
Date : May 2009
Description : In the past decade evidence has emerged from many parts of the world that Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCTs) for schooling are an effective way to boost enrolment. However, there is good reason to believe that such programs can also affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. The Zomba Cash Transfer Program (ZCTP) is a randomized CCT intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. An average offer of US$10/month conditional on satisfactory school attendance – plus direct payment of secondary school fees – led to significant declines in early marriage, teenage pregnancy, and sexual activity among program beneficiaries after just one year of program implementation. The effects were particularly strong among those who had already dropped out of school at baseline: the program reduced their likelihood to be married by approximately 40% and to start childbearing by more than 30%. Onset of sexual activity was also delayed among all program beneficiaries. Overall, these results suggest that CCT programs not only serve as useful tools for improving school attendance, but may also reduce sexual activity, age at marriage and teen pregnancy. Keywords: cash transfers; education; sexual behavior; gender; randomized intervention
Evaluating the impact of micro-franchising the distribution of anti-malarial drugs in Kenya on malaria mortality and morbidity
Project :
Author : Jacob Oduor; Anne Kamau; Evan Mathenge
Date : September 2009
Description : In an effort to increase access to effective anti-malaria drugs to the rural poor, the Kenyan government has partnered with a local non-governmental organization to distribute the drugs free of charge using a micro-franchise system in small privately-owned rural shops. This study uses difference-in-difference to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in increasing access to the drugs and hence on its impact on malaria morbidity and mortality. If effective, this system can be recommended for adoption in the distribution of other essential medicines to help in achieving some of the health related millennium development goals (MDGs) in Africa and Asia. The main results show that the program has significantly reduced malaria morbidity. The impact is however less when patients have to walk longer distances to access drugs. Further, the findings show that even without the free anti-malaria drugs, the outlets in themselves have helped reduce malaria morbidity probably due to the presence of other anti-malarial drugs in the outlets. In addition, the program is found to have significant spillover effects. Program impact on mortality is generally insignificant. The program is therefore recommendable for replication.
Governance And Adaptability Of Fishing Communities In A Marine Protected Area In The Colombian Caribbean
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Jorge H. Maldonado and Rocío Moreno-Sánchez
Date : September 2008
Description : The main objective of this research is to identify key factors that promote or constraint the adaptability of communities to adopt new and dynamic institutional arrangements –particularly a co-management strategy- at a marine protected area in Colombia. In order to do that, a blend of qualitative and quantitative approaches is used to determine how communities combine their assets and strategies to obtain wellbeing, and how they relate with their ecological surrounding. The analysis bases on the frameworks of sustainable livelihoods and adaptive co-management. The study is done at two communities living in a marine protected area (MPA) in the Colombian Caribbean: in the north part, close to Cartagena, the community of Barú; and in the south part, a more isolated community located in two close islands: Múcura and Santa Cruz del Islote. From the identification of communities’ livelihood systems and their adaptive capacity, it is observed that both communities exhibit very scarce endowment of physical (both private and public), human and financial assets, being a little worse the situation in Islote/Múcura. On the other hand, social capital and natural capital (and its knowledge) exhibit mid to high endowment in both communities, with a better endowment in Islote/Múcura. There is a substitution between physical and financial assets and, social capital. Although natural capital is abundant in some attributes –such as access to marine resources-, in others it is limited and scarce –for instance access to fresh water and land. This mix of lack of financial, human and physical assets with some relative abundance of natural and social capitals limits the possibilities and strategies available to these communities, generating high dependence and pressure on nature for livelihoods. Despite the access to these resources, most of the households are in or below the fringe of poverty, and available livelihoods limit the possibilities of overcoming structural poverty, being this the most critical aspect affecting resilience and adaptability. Policies aiming to protect the resources in the MPA should consider strengthening the capabilities of the local communities so as to enable them to diversify their livelihood options and provide greater participation of communities in MPA management processes.
Building Resiliency to Natural Hazards in Pacific Island Communities
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : "Gurmeet Singh, Leone Limalevu, Raghuvar Pathak and Biman Chand Prasad "
Date : September 2008
Description : This is the final report on the project “Building resiliency to natural hazards in Pacific Island communities” carried out under funding according to the 2008 Global Development Awards and Medals Competition by the Global Development Network (GDN). The project aim was to investigate the livelihoods of community members in rural villages in Pacific Island Countries (PICs), in order to determine their resiliencies to major climate change sensitive disasters such as cyclones, storm surges, floods, and sea level rises. While hydrometeorological events such as cyclones have been a feature of life in many PICs for aeons, current research indicates that storms will increase in intensity. As the destructive power of storms climb steeply with their intensity, communities will need to be better prepared than ever before. This comes at a time when the resilience of communities is in decline – bio-diversity is decreasing, land use management practices are damaging coastal areas, and social networks are degrading – to name a few factors. Nine communities around Fiji have been surveyed to assess the various attributes that determine resiliencies of households and communities, and how they would cope with severe storms. These data have been analysed to determine relative measures of resilience between the sample villages. This is at once a chance to record traditional methods of living, and assess how traditional knowledge may be shared to better prepare communities for hazards and potential disasters in the future. Further, a sub-sample of the villages has been studied to assess the main risk factors affecting their livelihoods. These data have been compiled as archetype villages to inform future studies on how PIC communities in general can mitigate the greatest risks, and how they can adapt to the outcomes of climate change.
Promoting Valuation of Forest Land By Tree Plantation Industries: Case Studies from Indonesia
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Julia G Maturana
Date : September 2008
Description : In the late 1980s, large amounts of money and areas of Indonesia’s forestland were allocated for the development of fast-growing pulp plantations. The allocation of these areas has been very important in supporting the economically-important pulp and paper industry and resulted in totally clearing vast areas of forests already logged for their prime timber and the elimination of the many environmental and social benefits these areas provide. The “financial” costs and benefits of this action—representing only a portion of the actual totals— can be easily accounted, while the full “economic” benefits and costs remain hidden. This paper examines the total economic costs and benefits of five large pulp plantation projects in Sumatra, Indonesia. Four of the five plantation projects generate economic costs above their economic benefits. The estimated economic costs represent over 30 times the actual financial payments the Government receives from each company; generating net loses of over US$3 billion for the country. The results and conclusions of this study may be particularly relevant for future forestry policies and promoting valuation of forest resources and its inclusion in the national accounting. Knowing the net economic benefits can provide useful inputs for the Government of Indonesia and other interest groups to revise current policies or regulations and setting new directions for future plantation projects that benefit the national economy in the long term.
Social diversity and ecological complexity: how an invasive tree could affect diverse agents in the land of the tiger
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Vikram Dayal
Date : September 2008
Description : This paper studies the effect of Prosopis juliflora, an exotic tree, on diverse agents in Ranthambhore National Park, situated in Rajasthan, India. Policy that has overlooked the complexity of ecology may prove to be self-defeating. The park management in Ranthambhore planted Prosopis juliflora to provide fuelwood to villagers because they were perceived to be harming the park by extracting fuelwood. Prosopis juliflora is now spreading through the park, and currently occupies about 5% of the area of the park, to the alarm of the park managers. It reduces feed for wild herbivores, and thereby affects tiger prey abundance. A bioeconomic model is used to examine the effect of Prosopis juliflora on Ranthambhore National Park. The area of the Park is divided into Prosopis juliflora and ‘other area’. Prosopis juliflora also produces pods, which are eaten only by goats. Wild herbivore browsers and goats compete for leaf biomass produced by ‘other area’. Wild herbivore grazers and cattle compete for grass produced by ‘other area’. There are four agents in the model: wood gatherer, goat owner, park manager and cattle owner. There is an inherent trade-off between tiger numbers and village livestock grazing. If Prosopis juliflora is not removed the number of tigers will be lower than if it is removed, ceteris paribus. If in addition to it not being removed, village livestock grazing is not restricted, the number of tigers could fall to perilously low levels. There is uncertainty about the severity of invasion by Prosopis juliflora (about its spread and about ecological succession). Also, the ease with which tigers can prey on livestock in comparison with wild herbivores is not known. Adaptive management of the park with experimentation, monitoring and learning with respect to Prosopis juliflora is suggested.
Measuring Irrigation Water Efficiency with a Stochastic Production Frontier: An Application for Citrus Producing Farms in Tunisia
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Boubaker Dhehibi
Date : September 2008
Description : The objective of this paper is to propose an alternative measure of irrigation water efficiency based on the concept of input- specific technical efficiency, which contracts with measures previously used in the literature. The proposed methodology is applied to a randomly selected sample of 144 citrus growing farms located in Nabeul (Tunisia). A stochastic production frontier approach, based on Battese and Coelli’s (1995)inefficiency effect model, is used to obtain farm-specific estimates of technical and irrigation water efficiency. In addition, a second-stage regression approach is used to identify the factors influencing irrigation water efficiency differentials across citrus growing farms. Results indicate that technical efficiency ranges from a minimum of 12.9% to a maximum of 90.7% with an average estimate of 67.7%. This suggests that citrus producers may increase their production by as much as 32.3% through more efficient use of production inputs. Further, mean irrigation water efficiency is found to be 53%, which is much lower than technical efficiency and also exhibits greater variability ranging from 1.6% to 98.87%. The estimated mean irrigation water efficiency implies that the observed quantity of marketable citrus could have been maintained by using the observed values of other inputs while using 47.0% less of irrigation water. Moreover, the estimated mean irrigation water technical cost efficiency is found to be 70.81% indicating a potential decrease of 29.19% in total cost by adjusting irrigation water to its efficient level. In addition, the vast majority of farms have achieved irrigation water technical cost efficiency greater than 90% (71% of farms). Finally, the analysis of the sources of efficiency differentials among farmers showed that farmer’s age, farm’s size, education level, agricultural training, the share of productive trees and the water disposable perception tend to affect positively the degree of both technical and irrigation water efficiency.
Development Paths, Natural Resources and Dynamic Comparative Advantages
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Rodrigo J Fuentes and Verónica Mies
Date : September 2008
Description : An important condition for convergence is that countries share the same technology for the aggregate production function (Solow, 1956). If countries produce a di¤erent mix of products, they will naturally have a di¤erent aggregate production function. We argue that the inclusion of natural resources, strongly determines the pattern of production and trade, and thus the path of development (Leamer, 1987) and the level of per capita consumption of a small open economy. We build a dynamic model of comparative advantages that naturally leads to di¤erent steady-state equilibria. Our main …ndings are, …rst, that di¤erences in income and capital per worker between countries with and without natural resources (and with di¤erent types of natural resources) are explained by the rent receive by the natural resource factor and the capital-labor ratio used in the natural resource sector relative to the other sectors. An economy that discovers a natural resource will almost always enjoy a higher level of consumption in steady state, although we describe one specifi…c case in which it is not optimal to exploit the natural resource. Second, for economies without natural resources, becoming industrialized is always good (in terms of consumption). Nevertheless, countries with natural resources could end up with a less industrialized productive sector, but a higher level of consumption. Third, the main results are robust to the inclusion of foreign direct investment and domestic human capital accumulation.
Do firm ownership and competition have bearing on productivity? An enquiry of Indian mining industry from 1998-99 to 2005-06.
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Amarendra Das
Date : September 2008
Description : Economic literature on the effect of firm ownership and competition on productivity remains highly divided. In this context, this study carries out an empirical exercise for the Indian mining industry. Comparison of TFP levels of public and private firms across four sectors shows the superiority of private firms in three; namely: metallic, non-metallic and coal during the entire period of our analysis. Productivity gap between public and private firms remained highest in the non-metallic sector. Private firms in this industry are almost two times more productive than their public counterpart. Similarly, private firms in metallic and coal mining industry are one and half times more productive than their public counterpart. The study shows that the sector (coal) with the domination of public sector remains least productive and the sector (non-metallic) with highest level of private participation as the most productive. Pressure of competition through liberalisation has not been able to bridge the productivity gap between public and private firms.
Determinants of Expropriation in the Oil Sector: A Theory and Evidence from Panel Data
Project : Awards and Medals Competition (AMC)
Author : Anton Kolotilin, Sergei Guriev and Konstantin Sonin
Date : September 2008
Description : In this paper we study nationalizations in the oil industry around the world in 1960-2002.We show, both theoretically and empirically, that governments are more likely to nationalize when oil prices are high and when political institutions are weak. We consider a simple dynamic model of the interaction between a government and a foreign oil company. The government cannot commit to abstain from expropriation and the company cannot commit to pay high taxes. Even though nationalization is ine¢ cient it does occur in equilibrium when oil prices are high. The model’s predictions are consistent with the panel analysis of a comprehensive dataset on nationalizations in the oil industry since 1960. Nationalization is more likely to happen when oil prices are high and the quality of institutions is low even when controlling for country …xed e¤ects.
 
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